Eisenstein’s Methods of Montage Explained | Russian Montage Theory | VIDEO ESSAY

[Music] hi there today we’re going to talk about Russian and filmmaker and theorist Sergei Eisenstein and his famous methods of montage since the word montage has come to mean any edited sequence it’s important to note that while all montage contains editing not all editing is true montage with a capital M if the cut simply shows us another physical angle of the scenes coverage as it is commonly known this is not montage in the Soviet sense of the word according to Eisenstein montage was combining shots that are depicted single and meaning neutral and content into intellectual contexts and series in other words to neutral images colliding to illustrate a third undetectable thing so now that we have a basic understanding of what montage is and isn’t let’s dive into Eisenstein five methods metric montage is cutting according to an exact measured metre or length of time ear regardless of the content of the shot itself Eisenstein cites the patriotic demonstrations from the end of st. Petersburg as an example of metric montage here the cuts are made here regardless of their individual content but rather to create a sense of chaos into gunfire and explosions another utilization of metric montage has been ratcheting up tension by shortening the pieces while preserving the original proportions of the film [Applause] also referred to as continuity editing rhythmic montage the easiest to spot and most widely used method of montage everything car chases – dialogue scenes utilize rhythmic montage you know an animal jokes well we got the chance that day one because we did one show in rhythmic montage each shots practical length derives from the specifics of the piece and from its plan blades according to the structure of the people the Odessa steps sequence from Eisenstein zone battleship potemkin is a prime and most frequently cited example of rhythmic montage and indeed has been omage and parodies many times throughout the years now montage methods are not mutually exclusive and metric and rhythmic elements are certainly found within our next two methods tonal montage is based on the characteristic emotional sound of the piece that’s great Sergey but what exactly does it mean well think of tone and miss temp as any visual or aural characteristic that two different shots could share in common an example from the more recent the revenant perfectly illustrates not just one but several instances of tonal montage in sequence in the following edits it is a motif of fogginess or haze that unifies the shots there are other tonalities you can use as the basis for your montage as well Wong kar-wai uses graphical or compositional tonality as a basis for montage in his acclaimed in the mood for love as both main characters are discovered at their writing desks framed within the additional frames of the set architecture totally connected to the idea that they are both trapped alone in their circumstances in these series of shots from Martin Scorsese’s the age of innocence light tonality drives the edits in this cut Apocalypse Now aural tonality of you la / tonal is by its nature more abstract and complicated than the methods discussed up until now as Eisenstein puts it from the moment that overtones can be heard parallel with the basic sound there also can be sensed vibrations oscillations that cease to impress as tones but rather is purely physical displacements of the perceived impression one theme famous for cross-cutting and rife with over tonal montage is the baptism sequence from The Godfather Part 1 many themes tones and overtones intermingle in this sequence that treats violence as a whole ear it shows the connection between religion and corruption and sanctifies the actions of a murderer [Music] iq enhancement filmmakers like Terrence Malick and David Lynch famous for their poetic approach to filmmaking where mood and tone supersede logic and plot often times rely heavily on over total montage Eisenstein said intellectual montage is montage not of general physiological / tonal sounds but of sounds and overtones of an intellectual sort one glaringly obvious example from a well known film if the cross cutting of the caribou being slaughtered with Willard killing Colonel Kurtz in Apocalypse Now [Music] the famous match cut in 2001 a Space Odyssey from the bone to the orbital weapons satellite is another prime example of intellectual montage so there you have it folks Eisenstein’s five methods of montage explained and exemplified for your viewing [Music]